1    Bengtsson A, Henriksson KG, Jorfeldt L, K~agedal B, Lennmarken C, Lindstrom F: Primary fibromyalgia. A clinical and laboratory study of 55 patients. Scand.J.Rheumatol. 1986, 15:340-347.

2    Wolfe F, Smythe HA, Yunus MB, Bennett RM, Bombardier C, Goldenberg DL, Tugwell P, Campbell SM, Abeles M, Clark P, Fam AG, Farber SJ, Fiechtner JJ, Franklin CM, Gatter RA, Hamaty D, Lessard J, Lichtbroun AS, Masi AT, McCain GA, Reynolds WJ, Romano TJ, Russell IJ, Sheon RP: The American College of Rheumatology 1990 criteria for the classification of fibromyalgia: Report of the Multicenter Criteria Committee. Arth.Rheum. 1990, 33:160-172.

3    Yunus MB, Masi AT: Juvenile primary fibromyalgia syndrome. A clinical study of thirty-three patients and matched normal controls. Arth.Rheum. 1985, 28:138-145.

4    Yunus MB, Holt GS, Masi AT, Aldag JC: Fibromyalgia syndrome among the elderly. Comparison with younger patients. J.Am.Geriatr.Soc. 1988, 36:987-995.

5    Waxman J, Zatzkis SM: Fibromyalgia and menopause. Examination of the relationship. Postgrad.Med. 1986, 80:165-7, 170-1.

6 ·  Crofford LJ: Neuroendocrine abnormalities in fibromyalgia and related disorders. Am.J.Med.Sci. 1998, 315:359-366.
A useful review of the HPA axis perturbations and hypotheses regarding the associations with pain.

7    Neeck G: From the fibromyalgia challenge toward a new bio-psycho-social model of rheumatic diseases. Z.Rheumatol. 1998, 57 Suppl 2:A13-A16.

8    Weigent DA, Bradley LA, Blalock JE, Alarcon GS: Current concepts in the pathophysiology of abnormal pain perception in fibromyalgia. Am.J.Med.Sci. 1998, 315:405-412.

9    Veldhuis JD, Iranmanesh A: Physiological regulation of the human growth hormone (GH)-insulin-like growth factor type I (IGF-I) axis: predominant impact of age, obesity, gonadal function, and sleep. Sleep 1996, 19:S221-S224.

10 · Muller EE, Locatelli V, Cocchi D: Neuroendocrine control of growth hormone secretion. Physiol Rev. 1999, 79:511-607.
An uptodate review of the neuro-physiology of GH secretion.

11   Hindmarsh PC, Brain CE, Robinson IC, Matthews DR, Brook CG: The interaction of growth hormone releasing hormone and somatostatin in the generation of a GH pulse in man. Clin.Endocrinol.(Oxf) 1991, 35:353-360.

12   Reid GJ: Textbook of Endocrinology, edn 8. Edited by Wilson JD, Foster MD. Philadelphia: W.B. Sanders; 1992.

13   Veldhuis JD, Iranmanesh A, Weltman A: Elements in the pathophysiology of diminished growth hormone (GH) secretion in aging humans. Endocrine. 1997, 7:41-48.

14   Holl RW, Hartman ML, Veldhuis JD, Taylor WM, Thorner MO: Thirty-second sampling of plasma growth hormone in man: Correlation with sleep stages. J.Clin.Endocrinol.Metab. 1991, 72:854-861.

15   Davidson JR, Moldofsky H, Lue FA: Growth hormone and cortisol secretion in relation to sleep and wakefulness. J Psychiatr Neurosci 1991, 16:96-102.

16   Florini JR, Prinz PN, Vitiello MV, Hintz RL: Somatomedin-C levels in healthy young and old men:  relationship to peak and 24-hour integrated levels of growth hormone. J Gerontol 1985, 40:2-7.

17   Wallymahmed ME, Foy P, Shaw D, Hutcheon R, Edwards RH, MacFarlane IA: Quality of life, body composition and muscle strength in adult growth hormone deficiency: the influence of growth hormone replacement therapy for up to 3 years. Clin Endocrinol.(Oxf.) 1997, 47:439-446.

18   Verhelst J, Abs R, Vandeweghe M, Mockel J, Legros JJ, Copinschi G, Mahler C, Velkeniers B, Vanhaelst L, Van Aelst A, De Rijdt D, Stevenaert A, Beckers A: Two years of replacement therapy in adults with growth hormone deficiency. Clin Endocrinol.(Oxf.) 1997, 47:485-494.

19   Lieberman SA, Hoffman AR: The somatopause: should growth hormone deficiency in older people be treated? Clin Geriatr.Med. 1997, 13:671-684.

20   Cuneo RC, Salomon F, McGauley GA, Sönksen PH:  The growth hormone deficiency syndrome in adults. Clin Endocrinol 1992, 37:387-397.

21   Wallymahmed ME, Baker GA, Humphris G, Dewey M, MacFarlane IA: The development, reliability and validity of a disease specific quality of life model for adults with growth hormone deficiency. Clin.Endocrinol.(Oxf). 1996, 44:403-411.

22   Johannsson G, Grimby G, Sunnerhagen KS, Bengtsson BA: Two years of growth hormone (GH) treatment increase isometric and isokinetic muscle strength in GH-deficient adults [see comments]. J Clin Endocrinol.Metab. 1997, 82:2877-2884.

23   Rutherford OM, Beshyah SA, Schott J, Watkins Y, Johnston DG: Contractile properties of the quadriceps muscle in growth hormone-deficient hypopituitary adults. Clin.Sci.(Colch). 1995, 88:67-71.

24   McGauley GA, Cuneo RC, Salomon F, Sönksen PH:  Psychological well-being before and after growth hormone treatment in adults with growth hormone deficiency. Horm.Res. 1990, 33 Suppl 4:52-54.

25   Salomon F, Cuneo RC, Hesp R, Sonksen PH: The effects of treatment with recombinant human growth hormone XX on body composition and metabolism in adults with growth hormone deficiency. N Engl J Med 1989, 321:1797-1803.

26   Florini JR: Hormonal control of muscle growth. Muscle Nerve 1987, 10:577-598.

27   Armstrong RB, Warren GL, Warren JA: Mechanisms of exercise-induced muscle fibre injury. Sports Med. 1991, 12:184-207.

28   Bennett RM: The contribution of muscle to the generation of fibromyalgia symptomatology. J Musculoskeletal Pain 1996, 4:35-59.

29   Christ ER, Carroll PV, Russell-Jones DL, Sonksen PH: The consequences of growth hormone deficiency in adulthood, and the effects of growth hormone replacement. Schweiz.Med.Wochenschr. 1997, 127:1440-1449.

30  Cuneo RC, Judd S, Wallace JD, Perry-Keene D, Burger H, Lim-Tio S, Strauss B, Stockigt J, Topliss D, Alford F, Hew L, Bode H, Conway A, Handelsman D, Dunn S, Boyages S, Cheung NW, Hurley D: The Australian Multicenter Trial of Growth Hormone (GH) Treatment in GH- Deficient Adults. J Clin Endocrinol.Metab. 1998, 83:107-116.

31 Giusti M, Meineri I, Malagamba D, Cuttica CM, Fattacciu G, Menichini U, Rasore E, Giordano G: Impact of recombinant human growth hormone treatment on psychological profiles in hypopituitary patients with adult-onset growth hormone deficiency. Eur.J Clin Invest. 1998, 28:13-19.

32   Almqvist O, Thoren M, Saaf M, Eriksson O: Effects of growth hormone substitution on mental performance in adults with growth hormone deficiency: a pilot study. Psychoneuroendocrinology 1986, 11:347-352.

33   Shahi M, Beshyah SA, Hackett D, Sharp P, Johnston DG, Foale R: Cardiac function and structure in growth hormone deficiency. Br.Heart J. 1991, 66:58-63.

34   Cuneo RC, Salomon F, Wiles CM, Hesp R, Sönksen PH: Growth hormone treatment in growth hormone-deficient adults. I. Effects on muscle mass and strength. J Appl.Physiol. 1991, 70:688-694.

35   Aimaretti G, Corneli G, Razzore P, Bellone S, Baffoni C, Bellone J, Camanni F, Ghigo E: Usefulness of IGF-I assay for the diagnosis of GH deficiency in adults. J.Endocrinol.Invest 1998, 21:506-511.

36   Hoeck HC, Vestergaard P, Jakobsen PE, Falhof J, Laurberg P: Diagnosis of growth hormone (GH) deficiency in adults with hypothalamic-pituitary disorders: comparison of test results using pyridostigmine plus GH-releasing hormone (GHRH), clonidine plus GHRH, and insulin-induced hypoglycemia as GH secretagogues. J.Clin.Endocrinol.Metab 2000, 85:1467-1472.

37   Moldofsky H, Scarisbrick P, England R, Smythe H:  Musculosketal symptoms and non-REM sleep disturbance in patients with “fibrositis syndrome” and healthy subjects. Psychosom Med 1975, 37:341-351.

38   Bennett RM: Beyond fibromyalgia: ideas on etiology and treatment. J.Rheumatol.Suppl. 1989, 19:185-191.

39   Bennett RM, Clark SR, Campbell SM, Burckhardt CS: Low levels of somatomedin C in patients with the fibromyalgia syndrome. A possible link between sleep and muscle pain. Arthritis Rheum. 1992, 35:1113-1116.

40   Bennett RM, Cook DM, Clark SR, Burckhardt CS, Campbell SM: Hypothalamic-pituitary-insulin-like growth factor-I axis dysfunction in patients with fibromyalgia. J.Rheumatol. 1997, 24:1384-1389.
A study of 500 fibromyalgia patients with IGF-1 levels and GH stimulation tests, demonstrating adult GH deficiency in about one third of patients.

41   Dinser R, Halama T, Hoffmann A: Stringent endocrinological testing reveals subnormal growth hormone secretion in some patients with fibromyalgia syndrome but rarely severe growth hormone deficiency . J Rheumatol 2000, 27:2482-2488.

42   Leal-Cerro A, Povedano J, Astorga R, Gonzalez M, Silva H, Garcia-Pesquera F, Casanueva FF, Dieguez C: The growth hormone (GH)-releasing hormone-GH-insulin-like growth factor-1 axis in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome. J Clin.Endocrinol.Metab 1999, 84:3378-3381.

43   Riedel W, Layka H, Neeck G: Secretory pattern of GH, TSH, thyroid hormones, ACTH, cortisol, FSH, and LH in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome following systemic injection of the relevant hypothalamic-releasing hormones. Z.Rheumatol. 1998, 57 Suppl 2:81-87.

44   Hallegua D.S., Wallace DJ, Silverman S, Bonert V, Mathur R, Klinenberg JR: Prevalence of fibromyalgia in Xgrowth hormone deficiency adults. J Musculoskeletal Pain 2001, 9:35-42.

45   Bennett RM, Clark SR, Walczyk J: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of growth hormone in the treatment of fibromyalgia. Am.J Med 1998, 104:227-231.
The only controlled study of supplemental GH therapy in fibromyalgia to date. Found a benefit after about 6 months of therapy with a relapse on discontinuing therapy.

46   Moorkens G, Wynants H, Abs R: Effect of growth hormone treatment in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome: a preliminary study. Growth Horm.IGF.Res. 1998, 8 Suppl B:131-133.

47   Chan JM, Stampfer MJ, Giovannucci E, Gann PH, Ma J, Wilkinson P, Hennekens CH, Pollak M: Plasma insulin-like growth factor-I and prostate cancer risk: a prospective study. Science 1998, 279:563-566.

48   Mantzoros CS, Tzonou A, Signorello LB, Stampfer M, Trichopoulos D, Adami HO: Insulin-like growth factor 1 in relation to prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia. Br.J Cancer 1997, 76:1115-1118.

49   Yee D: The insulin-like growth factors and breast cancer–revisited. Breast Cancer Res.Treat. 1998, 47:197-199.

50   Stoll BA: Breast cancer: further metabolic-endocrine risk markers? Br.J Cancer 1997, 76:1652-1654.

51   · Sanmarti A, Lucas A, Hawkins F, Webb SM, Ulied A: Observational study in adult hypopituitary patients with untreated growth hormone deficiency (ODA study). Socio-economic impact and health status. Collaborative ODA (Observational GH Deficiency in Adults) Group. Eur.J Endocrinol. 1999, 141:481-489.
A study documenting more cardiovascular risk factors, higher mortality, worse quality of life and higher absolute health costs than the general population in Spain.

52   Bengtsson BA: The consequences of growth hormone deficiency in adults. Acta Endocrinol. 1993, 128:2-5.

53 · Paiva, E.S., Deodhar, A., Jones, K.D., Bennett, R.M.,  Impaired growth hormone secretion in fibromyalgia patients: evidence for augmented hypothalamic somatostatin tone. Arthritis Rheum. 46(5): 1344-1350, 2002

54   Valcavi R, Valente F, Dieguez C, Zini M, Procopio M, Portioli I, Ghigo E: Evidence against deletion of the growth hormone (GH)-releasable pool in human primary hypothyroidism: studies with GH-releasing hormone, pyridostigmine, and arginine. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1993, 77:616-620.

55  Neeck G, Crofford LJ: Neuroendocrine perturbations in fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome  Rheum.Dis.Clin.North Am. 2000, 26:989-1002.
A comprehensive review of neuroendocrine disorders in fibromyalgia.

56   Crofford LJ, Engleberg NC, Demitrack MA: Neurohormonal perturbations in fibromyalgia. Baillieres.Clin.Rheumatol. 1996, 10:365-378.

57   Thorner O: The anterior pituitary. In Textbook of endocrinology, edn 8th. Edited by Wilson JD, Foster DW. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders; 1992:221-310.

58   Devesa J, Lima L, Tresguerres JAF: Neuroendocrine control of growth hormone secretion in humans. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 1992, 3:173-181.

59   Neeck G, Riedel W: Hormonal perturbations in fibromyalgia syndrome . Ann.N.Y.Acad.Sci. 1999, 876:325-38; discussion 339:325-338.

60   Katakami H, Arimura A, Frohman LA: Involvement of hypothalamic somatostatin in the suppression of growth hormone secretion by central corticotropin-releasing factor in conscious male rats. Neuroendocrinology 1985, 41:390-393.

61   Rivier C, Vale W: Involvement of corticotropin-releasing factor and somatostatin in stress-induced inhibition of growth hormone secretion in the rat. Endocrinology 1985, 117:2478-2482.

62   Hauger R.L. DFM: Regulation of the stress response by corticotropin-releasing factor receptors. In Neuroendocrinology in physiology and medicine. Edited by Conn PMFME. Totowa N.J.: Humana Press, 2000; 2000:261-286.

63   Bonaz B, Rivest S: Effect of a chronic stress on CRF neuronal activity and expression of its type 1 receptor in the rat brain. Am.J.Physiol 1998, 275:R1438-R1449.

64   Heim C, Ehlert U, Hanker JP, Hellhammer DH: Abuse-related posttraumatic stress disorder and alterations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in women with chronic pelvic pain. Psychosom.Med. 1998, 60:309-318.

65   Demitrack MA, Dale JK, Straus SE, Laue L, Listwak SJ, Kruesi MJP, Chrousos GP, Gold PW: Evidence for impaired activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1991,  73:1224-1234.

66   Heim C, Ehlert U, Hanker JP, Hellhammer DH: Psychological and endocrine correlates of chronic pelvic pain associated with adhesions. J.Psychosom.Obstet.Gynaecol. 1999, 20:11-20.

67   Wittert GA, Livesey JH, Espiner EA, Donald RA: Adaptation of the Hypothalamic–pituitary adrenal axis to chronic exercise stress in humans. Med.Sci.Sports Exerc. 1996, 28:1015-1019.

68   · Clauw DJ, Chrousos GP: Chronic pain and fatigue syndromes: overlapping clinical and neuroendocrine features and potential pathogenic mechanisms. Neuroimmunomodulation. 1997, 4:134-153.
Hypothesizes that fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome may be a result of genetic and environmental factors that interact to cause the development of named syndromes. Various components of the central nervous system are envisaged  to be involved, including the hypothalamic pituitary axes, pain-processing pathways, and autonomic nervous system.

69   Dessein PH, Shipton EA, Stanwix AE, Joffe BI: Neuroendocrine deficiency-mediated development and persistence of pain in fibromyalgia: a promising paradigm? . Pain 2000, 86:213-215.

70   Neeck G, Riedel W: Thyroid function in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome. J Rheumatol. 1992, 19:1120-1122.

71   Winfield JB: Pain in fibromyalgia. Rheum.Dis.Clin.North Am. 1999, 25:55-79.

72   Dorn LD, Chrousos GP: The neurobiology of stress: understanding regulation of affect during female biological transitions. Semin.Reprod.Endocrinol. 1997, 15:19-35.