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6 · Crofford LJ: Neuroendocrine abnormalities in fibromyalgia and related disorders. Am.J.Med.Sci. 1998, 315:359-366. A useful review of the HPA axis perturbations and hypotheses regarding the associations with pain.
7 Neeck G: From the fibromyalgia challenge toward a new bio-psycho-social model of rheumatic diseases. Z.Rheumatol. 1998, 57 Suppl 2:A13-A16.
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18 Verhelst J, Abs R, Vandeweghe M, Mockel J, Legros JJ, Copinschi G, Mahler C, Velkeniers B, Vanhaelst L, Van Aelst A, De Rijdt D, Stevenaert A, Beckers A: Two years of replacement therapy in adults with growth hormone deficiency. Clin Endocrinol.(Oxf.) 1997, 47:485-494.
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28 Bennett RM: The contribution of muscle to the generation of fibromyalgia symptomatology. J Musculoskeletal Pain 1996, 4:35-59.
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35 Aimaretti G, Corneli G, Razzore P, Bellone S, Baffoni C, Bellone J, Camanni F, Ghigo E: Usefulness of IGF-I assay for the diagnosis of GH deficiency in adults. J.Endocrinol.Invest 1998, 21:506-511.
36 Hoeck HC, Vestergaard P, Jakobsen PE, Falhof J, Laurberg P: Diagnosis of growth hormone (GH) deficiency in adults with hypothalamic-pituitary disorders: comparison of test results using pyridostigmine plus GH-releasing hormone (GHRH), clonidine plus GHRH, and insulin-induced hypoglycemia as GH secretagogues. J.Clin.Endocrinol.Metab 2000, 85:1467-1472.
37 Moldofsky H, Scarisbrick P, England R, Smythe H: Musculosketal symptoms and non-REM sleep disturbance in patients with “fibrositis syndrome” and healthy subjects. Psychosom Med 1975, 37:341-351.
38 Bennett RM: Beyond fibromyalgia: ideas on etiology and treatment. J.Rheumatol.Suppl. 1989, 19:185-191.
39 Bennett RM, Clark SR, Campbell SM, Burckhardt CS: Low levels of somatomedin C in patients with the fibromyalgia syndrome. A possible link between sleep and muscle pain. Arthritis Rheum. 1992, 35:1113-1116.
40 Bennett RM, Cook DM, Clark SR, Burckhardt CS, Campbell SM: Hypothalamic-pituitary-insulin-like growth factor-I axis dysfunction in patients with fibromyalgia. J.Rheumatol. 1997, 24:1384-1389. A study of 500 fibromyalgia patients with IGF-1 levels and GH stimulation tests, demonstrating adult GH deficiency in about one third of patients.
41 Dinser R, Halama T, Hoffmann A: Stringent endocrinological testing reveals subnormal growth hormone secretion in some patients with fibromyalgia syndrome but rarely severe growth hormone deficiency . J Rheumatol 2000, 27:2482-2488.
42 Leal-Cerro A, Povedano J, Astorga R, Gonzalez M, Silva H, Garcia-Pesquera F, Casanueva FF, Dieguez C: The growth hormone (GH)-releasing hormone-GH-insulin-like growth factor-1 axis in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome. J Clin.Endocrinol.Metab 1999, 84:3378-3381.
43 Riedel W, Layka H, Neeck G: Secretory pattern of GH, TSH, thyroid hormones, ACTH, cortisol, FSH, and LH in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome following systemic injection of the relevant hypothalamic-releasing hormones. Z.Rheumatol. 1998, 57 Suppl 2:81-87.
44 Hallegua D.S., Wallace DJ, Silverman S, Bonert V, Mathur R, Klinenberg JR: Prevalence of fibromyalgia in Xgrowth hormone deficiency adults. J Musculoskeletal Pain 2001, 9:35-42.
45 Bennett RM, Clark SR, Walczyk J: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of growth hormone in the treatment of fibromyalgia. Am.J Med 1998, 104:227-231. The only controlled study of supplemental GH therapy in fibromyalgia to date. Found a benefit after about 6 months of therapy with a relapse on discontinuing therapy.
46 Moorkens G, Wynants H, Abs R: Effect of growth hormone treatment in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome: a preliminary study. Growth Horm.IGF.Res. 1998, 8 Suppl B:131-133.
47 Chan JM, Stampfer MJ, Giovannucci E, Gann PH, Ma J, Wilkinson P, Hennekens CH, Pollak M: Plasma insulin-like growth factor-I and prostate cancer risk: a prospective study. Science 1998, 279:563-566.
48 Mantzoros CS, Tzonou A, Signorello LB, Stampfer M, Trichopoulos D, Adami HO: Insulin-like growth factor 1 in relation to prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia. Br.J Cancer 1997, 76:1115-1118.
49 Yee D: The insulin-like growth factors and breast cancer–revisited. Breast Cancer Res.Treat. 1998, 47:197-199.
50 Stoll BA: Breast cancer: further metabolic-endocrine risk markers? Br.J Cancer 1997, 76:1652-1654.
51 · Sanmarti A, Lucas A, Hawkins F, Webb SM, Ulied A: Observational study in adult hypopituitary patients with untreated growth hormone deficiency (ODA study). Socio-economic impact and health status. Collaborative ODA (Observational GH Deficiency in Adults) Group. Eur.J Endocrinol. 1999, 141:481-489. A study documenting more cardiovascular risk factors, higher mortality, worse quality of life and higher absolute health costs than the general population in Spain.
52 Bengtsson BA: The consequences of growth hormone deficiency in adults. Acta Endocrinol. 1993, 128:2-5.
53 · Paiva, E.S., Deodhar, A., Jones, K.D., Bennett, R.M., Impaired growth hormone secretion in fibromyalgia patients: evidence for augmented hypothalamic somatostatin tone. Arthritis Rheum. 46(5): 1344-1350, 2002
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55 Neeck G, Crofford LJ: Neuroendocrine perturbations in fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome Rheum.Dis.Clin.North Am. 2000, 26:989-1002. A comprehensive review of neuroendocrine disorders in fibromyalgia.
56 Crofford LJ, Engleberg NC, Demitrack MA: Neurohormonal perturbations in fibromyalgia. Baillieres.Clin.Rheumatol. 1996, 10:365-378.
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59 Neeck G, Riedel W: Hormonal pertubations in fibromyalgia syndrome . Ann.N.Y.Acad.Sci. 1999, 876:325-38; discussion 339:325-338.
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62 Hauger R.L. DFM: Regulation of the stress response by corticotropin-releasing factor receptors. In Neuroendocrinology in physiology and medicine. Edited by Conn PMFME. Totowa N.J.: Humana Press, 2000; 2000:261-286.
63 Bonaz B, Rivest S: Effect of a chronic stress on CRF neuronal activity and expression of its type 1 receptor in the rat brain. Am.J.Physiol 1998, 275:R1438-R1449.
64 Heim C, Ehlert U, Hanker JP, Hellhammer DH: Abuse-related posttraumatic stress disorder and alterations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in women with chronic pelvic pain. Psychosom.Med. 1998, 60:309-318.
65 Demitrack MA, Dale JK, Straus SE, Laue L, Listwak SJ, Kruesi MJP, Chrousos GP, Gold PW: Evidence for impaired activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1991, 73:1224-1234.
66 Heim C, Ehlert U, Hanker JP, Hellhammer DH: Psychological and endocrine correlates of chronic pelvic pain associated with adhesions. J.Psychosom.Obstet.Gynaecol. 1999, 20:11-20.
67 Wittert GA, Livesey JH, Espiner EA, Donald RA: Adaptation of the hypothalamopituitary adrenal axis to chronic exercise stress in humans. Med.Sci.Sports Exerc. 1996, 28:1015-1019.
68 · Clauw DJ, Chrousos GP: Chronic pain and fatigue syndromes: overlapping clinical and neuroendocrine features and potential pathogenic mechanisms. Neuroimmunomodulation. 1997, 4:134-153. Hypothesizes that fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome may be a result of genetic and environmental factors that interact to cause the development of named syndromes. Various components of the central nervous system are envisaged to be involved, including the hypothalamic pituitary axes, pain-processing pathways, and autonomic nervous system.
69 Dessein PH, Shipton EA, Stanwix AE, Joffe BI: Neuroendocrine deficiency-mediated development and persistence of pain in fibromyalgia: a promising paradigm? . Pain 2000, 86:213-215.
70 Neeck G, Riedel W: Thyroid function in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome. J Rheumatol. 1992, 19:1120-1122.
71 Winfield JB: Pain in fibromyalgia. Rheum.Dis.Clin.North Am. 1999, 25:55-79.
72 Dorn LD, Chrousos GP: The neurobiology of stress: understanding regulation of affect during female biological transitions. Semin.Reprod.Endocrinol. 1997, 15:19-35.